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Dassault Rafale - El luchador para todo Rol

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  • Dassault Rafale - El luchador para todo Rol

    Folleto tomado de la pagina Web del Fabricante:

    Omnirole by design

    The origins of the RAFALE can be traced to joint discussions between European nations taking place in the early eighties. But in the wake of the tri-national Tornado program which had put the most emphasis on air-to-surface functions, it soon appeared that the prime requirement of participating nations other than France was predominantly on the air-to-air side.

    The French Forces wanted a balanced multi-role aircraft that would be able to replace 7 types of aircraft around 2000-2010:

    1. Jaguar (air-to-ground attack),
    2. Super-Etendard (carrier-based air-to-ground attack),
    3. Crusader (carrier-based air cover of the naval group),
    4. Mirage F1 (multi-role),
    5. Mirage 2000 C (air defence),
    6. Mirage 2000 N and D (precision strike/interdiction with conventional and nuclear weapons),
    7. Mirage 4 (nuclear strike and recce).

    Two of the types to be replaced had to be carrier-based with all the resulting implications in terms of force projection capability: fast-deployed, self-supporting and lethal with limited size.

    This was the rational that eventually led to the decision by the French industry and Government to go it alone on RAFALE and provide it with distinctive features tuned to world-wide - opposed to strictly West European - market expectations.
    Optimized airframe

    The RAFALE is available as a single seater and as a two-seater in its land (C,B) variant and as a single-seater in its carrier capable (M) variant, featuring 80% commonality between them, with a single basic platform and mission system. It is slated to be the French armed forces' prime combat aircraft until 2040 at least.

    Airframe - materials - flight controls

    RAFALE features a delta wing with close-coupled canards.

    Longitudinal stability is moderately negative with a full fly-by-wire digital control system. The system is quadruple redundant with three digital channels and one separately designed analog channel. Design independence between channels is pivotal in preventing fatal flaws simultaneously affecting several channels due to software misconceptions. This is a unique feature derived from a more than one million flight hours in-house experience in full fly-by-wire (i.e. without any mechanical back-up) without any accident caused by the FCS.

    Minimising the RCS has also been a design driver in order to make stealth tactics possible.

    Dassault Aviation has a long praised tradition of designing sturdy airframes that sustain over 30 years of operation without heavy structural retrofit.

    Composite materials are extensively used and account for 70% of the wetted area. They also account for the 40% increase in the max take-off weight to empty weight ratio from traditional airframes built with aluminium and titanium.

    The M88

    The M88-2 is a new-generation engine featuring state-of-the-art technologies, including non-polluting combustion chamber, single-crystal turbine blades and powder metallurgy disks... It also features the latest advances in reducing electromagnetic and infrared signatures. In short, the M88-2 (11,250 to 17,000 lb of thrust) is a very compact powerplant, offering a high thrust-to-weight ratio and exceptional controllability, especially during acceleration.

    In order to further reduce specific fuel consumption and increase the service life of the engine's critical parts (high-pressure core and afterburner), Snecma Moteurs has developed a new version of the M88-2, called the M88-2E4. This new version offers improved fuel consumption (2 to 4 % lower than the M88-2E1). By 2005 all M-88 engines deployed in France will comply with this new standard.

    The M88-2E4 was designed from the outset for high dispatch reliability, along with easy maintainability and lower operating costs, to reduce the overall cost of ownership.
    Smart and discrete sensors

    The first and most important sensor of the RAFALE is obviously its new generation THALES RBE2 radar. Unprecedented levels of situation awareness are attained with earlier detection and tracking of multiple targets: detection and tracking of multiple air targets for close combat and long-range interception, real time generation of three-dimensional maps for terrain-following, real time generation of high resolution ground maps for navigation and targeting.

    However, in those circumstances when absolute discretion is the most relevant factor, RAFALE can rely on several other sensor systems:

    The front-sector optronics (OSF), developed by Thales, is completely integrated within the aircraft and can operate both in the visible and infrared wavelengths.

    The SPECTRA electronic warfare system, jointly developed by Thales and MBDA, provides the aircraft with the highest survivability assets against airborne and ground threats.

    The real-time data link allowing communication not only with other aircraft, but also with fixed and mobile command and control centres.

    For those missions requesting the use of it, RAFALE can also rely on the DAMOCLES new generation optronic/laser designation pod that brings full day and night LGB capability.

    Computing power

    The core of of the multisensor data fusion concept implemented aboard RAFALE lies in a new Modular Data Processing Unit (MDPU). It is composed of up to 18 flight line-replaceable modules, each with a processing power 50 times higher than that of the 2084 XRI type computer fitted on the early versions of Mirage 2000-5.

    The MDPU, which is composed of commercial-off-the-shelf elements, is the cornerstone of the avionics/weapon upgradeability of the RAFALE. Thanks to its modular architecture, the system is highly adaptable, and new avionics and new ordnance now under development can be easily integrated. Enough growth potential has been built into the RAFALE to ensure that the design has warfighting relevance beyond 2030.

    Sensor data fusion provides a link between the global battlespace surrounding the aircraft and the pilot's brain with its unique ability to grasp the outcome of tactical situations and make sensible decisions.

    A unique man-machine interface

    The RAFALE is fitted with an extremely ergonomic pilot interface (MMI), combining a Digital Voice Input with the HOTAS (hands on throttle and stick) control concept. It relies on a highly integrated suite of equipment with the following capabilities:

    Head-up flying using a wide-field-of-view (30°x22°) holographic head-up display (HUD). FLIR images can be displayed on the HUD.
    Analysis of the global tactical situation (" big picture "), using a 20°x20° multi-image head-level display (HLD). The HLD picture is focused at the same distance as the HUD picture to allow for fast eye transitions between head-up and head-down flying.
    Acquisition and fast visual designation of targets, using the helmet-mounted sight/display (HMSD).
    Management of system resources in two colour lateral displays, featuring 5x5 inch touch screens.
    Advanced weapons

    The RAFALE's mission system has the potential to support all current and planned armaments, namely:

    the Mica air-to-air missile, in its MICA IR (heat-seeking ) and EM (active radar homing) versions,
    the upcoming AASM range of modular air-to-ground weapons,
    the Scalp/Storm Shadow long-range stand-off missile,
    the upcoming Meteor long-range air-to-air missile,
    anti-ship missiles (Exocet),
    laser-guided bombs,
    conventional air-to-ground ordnance,
    customer-selected weapons.
    The RAFALE's stores management system is Mil-Std-1760 compliant, which allows for the integration of customer-selected weapons.

    With an empty weight of about 10 tons, the RAFALE is fitted with 14 hard points (13 on the RAFALE M). Five of them are capable of drop tanks and heavy ordnance. Total external load capacity is over 9 tons ( 20,000 lbs.).

    Buddy refuelling missions can be carried out into portions of the airspace out of reach of dedicated tanker aircraft.

    All versions of RAFALE are fitted with the Giat Industries Defa 791 30-mm cannon, capable of firing 2,500 rounds per minute.

    With its high carrying capability and its powerful mission system, RAFALE can combine ground attack and air-to-air combat missions during the same sortie. It is also capable of performing multiple functions at the same time such as beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air firing during the very-low-altitude penetration phase. This gives RAFALE impressively broad multi-role capabilities, along with a high degree of survivability.
    Low operating costs

    RAFALE supportability and mission readiness capitalise on the undisputed track record of the current generation of French fighters such as the combat-proven Mirage 2000.

    From the early beginning of the development phase, French MOD assigned very stringent Integrated Logistic Support requirements on RAFALE programme, well exceeding the prowess of Mirage 2000. Through concurrent engineering and Computer Aided Design (CAD) techniques, the best technological choices were made in order to favour reliability, accessibility and maintainability.

    These extensive ILS studies, together with bold technological choices, led to supportability features exceeding the preliminary requirements.

    Maintainability aspects have been thoroughly assessed and validated by French Navy and French Air force users. RAFALE is already well in service and enjoys from day one a very high availability and sortie rate (close to 300 FH/year/aircraft) in the confined and stringent aircraft carrier environment.

    For self-supportability, the RAFALE is designed to require the minimum of ground support equipment: it is equipped with an on-board oxygen generation system, and with a closed-loop cooling fluid system for on-board coolanol and nitrogen circuits. The built-in Auxiliary Power Unit provides electrical power until the engine-driven generators come on line. During exercise "Trident d'Or", French Naval Aviators validated the RAFALE hot refuelling procedure.

    Affordable high-tech fighter

    An reliable and easily maintainable fighter invariably translates into considerably lower maintenance costs:

    There is no complete airframe or engine depot level inspection required throughout the aircraft service life, and only specific components such as Shop Replaceable Units (SRUs) are returned for maintenance/repair.

    The decision to eliminate the complex systems from the early design phase (a fixed refuelling probe, but removable, fixed air intake, no airbrake, no constant speed drive due to variable frequency,...) and the full interchangeability between elements induce a reduction in spares inventory. Similarly, changing, at flight-line level, printed circuit boards within a LRU instead of replacing the LRU itself lessens the need for complete spare units (radar, SPECTRA, modular computers).

    The fighter needs reduced ground manning levels (30 percent gain compared with the Mirage 2000), and lowered personnel training requirements. For instance, the side-opening canopy facilitates ejection-seat removal (ex: 10 min, 2 men for a seat exchange).

    Logistic footprint reduction results from the elimination of heavy external means required with conventional aircraft. For example, no flight-line external tester is now required due to the extensive use of integrated testability. Also the elimination of engine run-up test cell is a unique achievement.

    Advanced... but within schedule and operational

    RAFALE has been displayed in worldwide air shows. Close to 150 foreign air force pilots have flown it. It has been the object of in-depth and very positive evaluations by several foreign air forces.

    The maiden flight of the series aircraft took place in 1998. RAFALE's production rate is presently increasing, with close to 20 production aircraft already delivered to the French Government.
    The first F1 standard - with air-to-air capabilities, is operational with the French Navy. It has been used extensively from the "Charles de Gaulle" carrier during the "Enduring Freedom" coalition operation.

    The second F2 standard is available to the French Air Force, which has already taken delivery of some aircraft, and it will be available for retrofit of the Navy F1 standard aircraft at a later stage. This F2 standard provides the aircraft with its true omnirole capability for air-to-air and air-to-ground missions. The first operational RAFALE squadron will be located by the French Air Force in Saint-Dizier in 2006. With its contract awarded last year, the F3 standard is currently under development.

    A first batch of 13 aircraft, followed by a second batch of 48 aircraft, and a third batch of 59 aircraft brings to 120 the total number of RAFALE that were already ordered. The French Armed Forces are committed to a multi-year procurement plan calling for 294 aircraft (234 for the Air Force and 60 for the Navy).
    Performances and characteristics

    Span 10,80 m (35.4ft)
    Wing area 45,70 m2 (492 sq ft)
    Length 15,27 m (33.8ft)
    Height 5,34 m (17,4ft)

    Empty 10-ton class
    Max 24.500 kg (54,000lb)
    Fuel (internal) 4.700 kg (10,300lb)
    Fuel (external) 6.800 kg (15,000lb)
    Max external capability 9.500 kg (20,950lb)

    External store stations
    Total 14
    Heavy stores & fuel "wet" stations 5

    Load factors +9g/-3.2g
    Max speed M 1.8+/750 kts
    Approach speed 120 kts
    Landing distance 450 m (1,475 ft)
    Max climb rate over 1,000 ft/sec
    Operational ceiling 55,000 ft
    Radius of action (penetration mission) more than 1.000 NM
    Combat air patrol loiter time over 3 hours

    [size=2]Gallos de Pelea
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  • #2
    Excelente post pedro_rafael. Por mi parte envío una fotito


    atte. gato_ar


    • #3
      alguna pagina de info...en español......


      • #4
        Brother, las mejores paginas sobre este caza estan en Ingles../ hay una muy buena:

        detalla origenes, diseño, airframe... bastante interesante
        Primun Non Nociere... En Medicina Trabajamos con Cero de Constantes y un Infinito de Variables.


        • #5
          ¿Cuánto cuestan los Rafale? Me parecen cazas de características muy buenas.